As we have seen, one result of the war was that the role of the state increased enormously in most countries, yet the degree to which this occurred and the forms it took differed widely, while there are anomalies in any easy elision from the war-time or pre-war experiences to this development.
Italian economic miracle The Italian economy experienced very variable growth. Even the few painters, who practiced a kind of Social Realism, were not necessarily affiliated with Marxism.
Victorious but battered, Britain was, a threadbare and austere country with an exhausted economy, now that American aid was withdrawn, and the French economy was dislocated: A Congress of Europe met in The Hague in May to discuss various plans for closer integration and this led to the formation of the Council of Europe the following year, which in turn set up a parliamentary assembly and then, in succession, to the Schuman Plan, the subsequent formation of the Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community EEC.
The United States helped Europe recover, and in turn European countries became the biggest consumers, or users, of U. As it is, my topic is vast and complex.
The Impact of the War That great events have great effects seems a truism and it would follow that the Second World War, a conflict which caused a colossal loss of life, saw a continent divided as mighty armies strove for supremacy, and ended with much of Europe in ruins and the rest impoverished, must have had a transforming effect.
And yet its post-war situation was in many respects worse than in the other countries. The country also underwent social and cultural change in the postwar years.
At home, McCarthyism, named after the anti-communist crusader, Senator Joseph McCarthy, involved crushing communism or anything that seemed to resemble estrangement from the American form of government.
I have focused on art that can in one way or another be called political in the wider sense.
In Leopold Senghor, the spokes person for the West European Union, ranked culture alongside military defense as a means to protect Western European unity. American popular culture had, of course, been influential in pre-war Europe.
The most remarkable change was in the middle class, where managers and experts replaced traditional property owners as the leaders of middle class society. William Douglas, a Supreme Court Associate Justice at the time, made a keen observation of this trend: The war ended with what in historical terms was an odd peace, for there was no peace treaty with Germany, 1 in part because the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers had left no authority to conclude peace with, and also because of the disintegration of the alliance of the victorious powers shortly after the moment of victory.
Social Transformation in Europe after World War II Patterns of everyday life and the structure of Western society changed after the war, just as much as political and economic recovery had instituted dramatic changes.
In short, the evidence for a direct connection between the experience of the war and post-war developments is mixed and varied and, when the reaction against corporatism and the swing back to the free market and a lesser role for the state began, it can be seen, in its national variations, as return to pre-war trajectories.
The postwar climate therefore never lent itself to the polarization that could be found in Italy and France for example. An essay on this subject written in, shall we say,orwould have a very different perspective, for many of changes made by the war were far from permanent and, arguably, post-war developments had a greater effect.
The Civil Rights movement was reinvigorated both during and after the war. Marwick also argued that both world wars had seen more women employed in a wider range of occupations and that, afterwomen were to enjoy greater opportunities and a more equal position in society.
And I concentrate in particular on the ways in which the different political situations in England, France and Germany during the war and in the immediate postwar period reflected on the national art scene. Parallel, however, to the close association in defence and politics with the United States was a movement towards European unity.
The postwar climate therefore never lent itself to the polarization that could be found in Italy and France for example. Whether the war experience resulted in a transformation of the position of women in post-war society and whether many women wanted such a change have been doubted by some historians.
The Crushing of Eastern Europe has, more recently, provided support for this thesis. Food shortages were so bad that food rationing continued untiland consumer goods were only gradually introduced in the early The standard of living in Europe rose and the percentage of food spent on food and lodging declined precipitously.
Bulgariawhere from a Communist-dominated Fatherland Front was the only legal political group; Poland and Romania, where a strong parallel state was dominated by Communists; and Hungary and Czechoslovakia, where, untila limited degree of democracy was permitted.
Rarely have conditions been more horrendous than during the war and the immediate post war period in Europe.
Amid the difficulties and excitement of postwar recovery, economic expansion, and renewed conflict, people turned to fashion for relief from their worries and for ways to express themselves.
Winston Churchill — [ ] had, perhaps, failed to realise or had ignored the anti-colonial implications of the Atlantic Charter, which he and Franklin D.
And so I have decided to throw my net over a rather wide territory and cover England as well as France, Germany, and to some degree Italy. There was a national enthusiasm for a return to normality that created pressures for people to conform to standards of dress and behavior.
The success of the Western European economies in recovering from the nadir of was infinitely superior to the much more limited progress made by the Soviet Bloc, but it is easy from an early twenty-first perspective to underestimate the limited but real achievements of the Eastern European economies in the first post-war decades.
Rarely have conditions been more horrendous than during the war and the immediate post war period in Europe. Germany as the instigator of the war was totally demolished physically and psychologically and ended up divided by its occupation force and by the hardening positions in the Cold war.
The "baby boom" of the postwar years celebrated domesticity, brought about suburbanization or the growth of the suburbsand resulted in a boom in the birth rate in the years following the war.
This contributed to the start of deindustrialisation in Wallonia and the emergence of regional economic disparities. This was achieved through a number of policies, including promoting free tradeinstituting the Marshall Planand the use of Keynesian economics.
World War I: Europe and the politics of remembrance Exactly years ago, World War I came to an end. France and the UK will be holding major commemorative events, and high-ranking. Keywords:World War II Postwar America American History Cold War The end of World War II was not just the end of a war, but also the beginning of a tense and dynamic period that affected society on all levels.
After World War II ended inEurope was divided into Western Europe and Eastern Europe by the Iron Curtain. Western Europe promoted capitalist democracies, and Eastern Europe came under the Communist influence of the Soviet Union.
World War II was the first war that claimed the lives of more civilians than soldiers and witnessed the horror of the first systematic genocide in modern history with the Holocaust. In addition, many cities, towns and villages across Europe were completely destroyed by aerial bombing and heavy artillery.
The Political Impact of World War I There is a lot that can be said of the political effects of World War I, so we'll try to focus on the highlights. This will be rather 'rapid-fire' in terms of content, so hang on tight.
Here we go. Under the Tre. The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of strong economic growth beginning after World War II and ending with the –75 recession.Cultural and political revitalization of post world war ii europe