P athogenesis The detailed pathogenesis of RVF is not known.
If such treatment proves to lack toxicity, it could be very valuable for treating researchers, doctors or nurses who are accidentally exposed to a filovirus in the laboratory or while responding to a disease outbreak.
Severe illness is characterized by extensive hepatic infection and necrosis.
Ribavirin produces a reversible hemolytic anemia, and evidence of teratogenicity prevents its use in pregnant women. E pidemiology The filoviruses are the only agents of viral hemorrhagic fever for which no natural reservoir has been identified.
T his section focuses on the diseases caused by five different viruses from this group. A recent study has demonstrated the plasma cytokine profile in dengue fever from a Brazilian population which was detected by a multiplex bead immunoassay.
The virus was first isolated induring an outbreak of severe disease in the Crimean peninsula of the Soviet Union, where wartime conditions increased human exposure to ticks or infected animals.
Some been stimulatory while others tend to downregulate the immunological network.
The cytokine profiles identified by bead array multiplex system may favour an early identification of patients with the worst prognosis and may contribute to the establishment of more directed therapeutic procedures than the present ones [ 24 ].
InRVF virus was carried across the Red Sea to Yemen through the local sheep trade, raising concerns that the disease may become established in the Middle East.
Plasma leakage progresses either rapidly or slowly to cease completely and predictably after 24 to 48 hours of onset, raising the possibility of existence of underlying functional change rather than structural damage and inflammation in the vasculature.
All of them are maintained in rodents, among which they spread through direct contact or excretions; none is transmitted by an arthropod vector. Experimental approaches that show promise for human use are described above.
E pidemiology The arenaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fever are divided into two groups: Neutralising antibodies are key factors in the aetiopathogenesis of the disease.
The fourth species of Ebola virus, the enigmatic Reston agent, made its world debut inwhen it caused an outbreak among captive primates recently imported from the Philipines to a monkey quarantine facility in suburban Virginia.
Production of full-length membrane-bound GP requires the post-transcriptional addition of a nucleotide to its messenger RNA during transcription. Survival appears to require the rapid mobilization of a specific immune response: Subsequent infection with a different serotype results in the binding of the new virus to cross reactive nonneutralising antibody from the previous infection facilitating the uptake by mononuclear phagocytes enabling amplified viral replication.
Although hemorrhage may occur in severe cases, it is not a prominent part of the syndrome. At the same time, cytokines and chemokines released from infected macrophages cause vasodilatation and increased permeability, and cell-surface tissue factor triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Pathogenesis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Its Impact on Case Management. Article P athogenesis of Dengue H aemor rhag ic F ever and I ts Impact on.
Case Management. K. olitha H.
Sellahewa. D. For example, many cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Lassa or yellow fever are mild and go unrecognized, but Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever is almost always a severe disease, in which the case fatality rate ranges from %. Given the growing global threats of terrorism, it is significant that an understanding of the history, nature and mechanism-premises under which terror operates is.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever 24 CHAPTER 3 Treatment Loss of plasma volume The major pathophysiological abnormality seen in DHF/DSS is an acute increase in vascular permeability leading to loss of plasma from the vascular.
Pathogenesis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Its Impact on Case Management. Kolitha H. Sellahewa. Department of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Jalan Batu Hampar, Bukit Baru, Melaka, Malaysia.
Received 5 September ; Accepted 30 September BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: Its history and resurgence as a global public health problem. Gubler DJ, Kono G, editors.Athogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever and